Tactics and strategy.
Chess strategy — principles and methods of a chess game, covering the preparation and implementation of a systematic, progressive developmental impact on the position of your opponent.
As a set of General principles of playing chess games strategy exists since the inception of the game. However, since Philidor, it strategy based on the creation of the first pawn, and then structure of positions in chess.
Elements of the strategy of the chess struggle are:
– optimal for this situation, the arrangement of the figures;
– their concentration in an important area of struggle and to ensure the interaction between them.
– create a maximum of difficulties the other party in the performance of assigned tasks;
– the mastery of space, particularly in the centre, or in control, and oppression of the figures of the opposing party, or the undermining of the centre of the enemy;
– a harmonious, interlocking pawn structure and weakening them from the other side;
– the creation of “good” figures and “bad” the opponent;
– capture open or half-open lines and key fields.
The combination of these elements in every moment of the party with regard to possible concrete proposals provides an opportunity to assess the position on the basis of which is determined by the game plan.
Strategy is organically linked with the tactics of the game of chess, using her techniques to achieve strategic objectives, and also creates the structural framework for the application of tactical strikes, implementation of the combinations.
Strategy is always abstract, whereas the tactic — specific. The games played in line with the strategic plans relate to the position; played in the tactical style to the matching.
Chess tactics — a set of methods and ways of execution rules are the same operations included in the strategic plan and its final.
The role of tactics in a chess game is exceptionally large: gross error or tactical error can result in immediate loss of the game. When you join forces rivals into direct contact when the shape of the parties is attacked or threatened to attack each other on the Board occurs the tactical situation. In tactical operations figures interact with each other, the greater role played by concerted action figures one side against the other.
In any tactical operation can be divided into 3 components:
– the object of attack;
– the means of attack;
– means of protection.
Targets of attack can be not only kings, but also any other pieces or pawns. Sometimes the object of attack may be a group of fields or a single field in the location of the opponent’s forces.
Basic means of attack include threat of attack, attack restrictions, but effective means of attack are dual and combined assault.
Among the basic means of protection — care attacked by the figure, its support by another piece, overlapping the attacking figure, a retaliatory attack. When the protection is rarely possible to return a double or multiple attack.
Combination — the most important element of the tactics of chess, which is often associated with the victim, which makes it particularly attractive from an aesthetic point of view.
The elements of chess tactics:
To undermine the center — a strategic appointment in a chess game used to weaken or destroy the enemy’s center, one of the most effective tools modern opening strategy. Found in all stages of a chess game.
Zugzwang (German. Zugzwang “compulsion to move”) is a situation in checkers and chess, in which one of the parties is in a position in which any move leads to a deterioration of the position.
Currently, the term is used not only in chess but also in other sports (Billiards, Curling), gambling games (backgammon, card games), as well as in many other fields, and even in the home. For example in value, when every action or inaction will still lead to deterioration of the situation, that is “to do and not to do”.
When zugzwang one side or both at once (mutual zugzwang) no beneficial or neutral moves and the movement of any of the figures leads to the deterioration of the assessment of their own position (in a strict sense — to a deterioration of the result).
Often the alleged zugzwang, that is, the position, the outcome of which does not change in the imaginary progress of the enemy, but subjectively there is a lack of useful moves.
Another common imaginary any lost zugzwang is a position in which losing is forced to passively wait the approaching defeat.
Bundle (eng. pin it. Fesselung), chess — the position at which the long-range piece (Queen, rook, Bishop) attacking enemy piece (or pawn) that is on the line of attack (line cords) is another enemy figure. Thus, in conjunction involves at least three figures.
The attacking piece is called the binding, protecting — associated, as the ligament usually leads to restriction of movement and attacking action. The ligament may be complete (absolute), if the associated figure completely loses the ability to move, protecting his king, and incomplete (relative), when the associated piece can move along the line or ligaments, or if it does not protect the king, and the other its shape. Piece can give check or checkmate, even when related. In addition, the associated shape may, in turn, linked to the figure of the enemy. Action, leading to the formation of ligaments, called binding.
In chess composition the following ways of binding
Straightwhen long-range figure is at the binding line, binding a piece (or pawn) of a different color.
Indirectly, when the line of the ligament takes a piece (or pawn) of the same color as the binding.
Samonazvaniewhen the bundle is created by that hand, whose shape (or pawn) is associated.
Hidden (disguised) link position in which the bale is formed as a result of the withdrawal from the line of bundles of one or more pieces of any color.
Polywatch position in which between the king and poweful figure of a different color there are two pieces (or pawns) of the same color as the king. Care any of these two figures (pawns) creates a bunch of the remaining pieces (pawns) is a particular case of naming. Polywatch is also a special case of the disguised Achilles.
Threatswatch position in which between the king and the long-range figure of another color there are three pieces (or pawns) of the same color as the king. The departure of any two of these three figures (pawns) creates a bunch of the remaining figures (pawns).
The lure (attraction) — a tactic that force (with the aid of the victims of attacks or threats) the opponent’s piece to occupy a particular field or line to use the unsuccessful position of this figure.
Distraction pieces, a tactic in which a figure, forced to move to another field, ceases to perform any important functions (such as for the protection of the other figure, field or line). Distraction is often achieved with the aid of the victim.
Defense destruction — a tactic used to eliminate (by victims or exchanges) of the pieces or pawns of the opponent, protecting or covering the other pieces (particularly the king). Often the destruction protection is an integral element of different combinations.
The overlap in chess — tactic in a chess game, the position of the shape on the lines of action of long-range pieces. Often in practical play is understood as location your own shapes on the lines of action ranged opponent to disrupt their offensive or defensive actions.
Lock (lock a field) — a tactic which forced his opponent to block the path of retreat of another, usually more valuable piece, which becomes the object of attack. A special kind of lure: the lure so when the object of attack — lure shape, when the lock is locked.
The release of the field — a tactic that allows you to release necessary figures for the other field. In chess composition the release field for the king is called unlocking. As the subject in the task release field is often combined with a piece sacrifice — the so-called liberating the victim.
Chess theory is a set of studies on various aspects of chess. Its active development began with the XV century, when chess rules established in the form, remaining essentially unchanged to the present day.
The stages of the party. The theory postulates three stages of a chess game: opening, middlegame and endgame.
Debut — the initial stage of the party, continued the first 10-15 moves. In the opening stages of the main task of players is to mobilize its own forces, preparing for direct confrontation with the enemy and the beginning of such a collision. The opening games are the most well studied in theory, there is a volumetric classification of openings, developed recommendations for optimal actions in certain embodiments, eliminated a large number of unsuccessful debut systems.
The middle game — the middle game. Stage starting after the opening. It is usually the main events of the chess game (situation when winning is achieved in the opening, very rare). Is characterized by a large number of pieces on the Board, active maneuvering, attacks and counterattacks, competition for key items in the first place — at the center. The party could be completed at this stage, this usually happens when one party holds a successful combination. Otherwise, after the capture of a larger number of shapes the party goes into the endgame.
Endgame — the final stage of the game. Is characterized by a small number of pieces on the Board. In the endgame dramatically increases the role of pawns and the king. Often the main theme of the endgame becomes conducting passing pawns. Endgame ends in either a victory for one side or the achievement of a situation where victory is impossible in principle. In the latter case is a draw.
Chess as a game with complete information. Chess is a game with complete information, so the result of the game predefined in the case of following at least one of the players optimal strategy guaranteeing winning (or a draw). Mathematically proven that this strategy, under the condition of finiteness of the game, surely there is (for chess or any other game with complete information), but at the moment, for chess it is not found. A large number of options of moves and possible positions prevent “mechanical” calculation of the progress of the party more than a few moves ahead, so in practice, the outcome of the game unpredictable.